A credible evidence-base to define the sewage infra-structure contribution to microbial and nutrient flux, at the catchment scale, is a central requirement of the EU Water Framework Directive. CREH has a track record of successful quantification of treated effluent and intermittent discharge (network CSOs and storm tank overflows) and their relative contributions in both low flow periods and following rainfall events. The latter comprise a particularly dynamic phase in catchment delivery when both diffuse catchment fluxes and infrastructure intermittent sources are in operation.


Direct sampling from works and CSOs provides the best quality empirical evidence-base for water industry plant operators, regulators and the policy community.


High quality data from direct sampling of sewage fluxes also provides excellent calibration for sewer modelling by the water industry and engineering consultancies.


All CREH field staff have confined spaces training, appropriate safety clothing and regularly produce risk assessments, to client requirements, for sewage works  sampling operations.

Stapleton, C. M., Wyer, M. D., Crowther, J., McDonald, A.T., Kay, D., Greaves, J., Wither, A., Watkins, J., Francis, C., Humphrey, N. and Bradford, M. (2008) Quantitative catchment profiling to apportion faecal indicator organism budgets for the Ribble system, the UK’s sentinel drainage basin for Water Framework Directive research. Journal of Environmental Management 87, 535-550. (doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.11.035).

Kay, D., Kershaw, S., Lee, R., Wyer, M.D., Watkins, J. and Francis, C. (2008) Results of field investigations into the impact of intermittent sewage discharges on the microbiological quality of wild mussels (M. edulis) in a tidal estuary. Water Research 42, 3033-3046 (doi:10.1016/j.watres.2008.03.020).

Kay, D., Crowther, J., Stapleton, C.M., Wyer, M.D., Anthony, S., Bradford, M., Edwards, A., Fewtrell, L., Francis, C., Hopkins, M., Kay, C., McDonald, A.T., Watkins, J. and Wilkinson, J. (2008) Faecal indicator organism concentrations and catchment export coefficients in the UK. Water Research 42, 2649-2661. (doi:10.1016/j.watres.2008.01.017).

Kay, D., Stapleton, C.M., Crowther, J., Wyer, M.D., Fewtrell, L., Edwards, A., McDonald, A.T., Watkins, J., Francis, F. and Wilkinson, J. (2008) Faecal indicator organism compliance parameter concentrations in sewage and treated effluents. Water Research 42, 442-454. (doi:10.1016/j.watres.2007.07.036).