Drinking Water and Recreational Water

 

Quantification of drinking and recreational water quality is the core business of CREH driving its Health Impact Assessments, Catchment Modelling and Flow and Load surveys of sewage works.


Major projects for the UK Drinking Water Inspectorate have delivered surveys of Cryptosporidium spp. in treated drinking waters, the quality of private water supplies and bottled waters in the United Kingdom.


The CREH team have also delivered research and policy advice to WHO, UNESCO and the World Bank on the health impacts of contaminated drinking water and poor sanitation.


CREH staff have also delivered research and consultancy advice on recreational water quality to WHO, the EU, the UK House of Lords and the USEPA, specifically contributing to the first WHO Guidelines (2003) and the EU response as seen in the Bathing Water Directive (2006)


They have a full range of field equipment and the support of the CREH Analytical UKAS accredited laboratory to complete field investigations at the catchment scale designed to quantify water quality impairment of drinking and recreational waters. Work for UK regulators and governments has also addressed the principal means of improving water quality through both agricultural diffuse pollution and enhanced treatment of sewage works effluents


Kay, D. and Fricker, C. (Eds) (2012) The Significance of Feacal Indicators in Water: a global perspective. Proceedings of the 2011 FIPs Conference, Edinburgh. Royal Society of Chemistry, London.  188p. ISBN: 978-1-84973-169-0. doi:10.1039/9781849735421.

Wyer, M.D., Wyn-Jones, P., Kay, D., Au-Young, C., Girones, R., Lopez-pila, J., de Roda Husman, A.M., Rutjes, S. and Schneider, O. (2012) Relationships between human adenoviruses and indicator organisms in European recreational waters. Water Research (in press) doi:10.1016/j.watres.2012.04.008

Fewtrell, L., Davies, C., Francis, C., Jones, H., Watkins, J., and Kay, D. (2012) Microbiology of sustainable water systems: rainwater harvesting a UK perspective. Chapter 19 in in Kay, D. and Fricker, C. (Eds) (2012) The Significance of Feacal Indicators in Water: a global perspective. Proceedings of the 2011 FIPs Conference, Edinburgh. Royal Society of Chemistry, London.  p167-176. ISBN: 978-1-84973-169-0. doi:10.1039/9781849735421.

Robinson, G., Chalmers, R.M., Stapleton, C.M., Palmer, S.R., Watkins, J., Francis, C. and Kay, D. (2011) A whole water catchment approach to investigating the origin and distribution of Cryptosporidium species. Journal for Applied Microbiology 111, 717-730.

Dufour, A., Wade, T. and Kay, D. (2012) A Review of Epidemiological Studies on Swimmer Health Effects Associated with Potential Exposure to Zoonotic Pathogens in Bathing Beach Water. Chapter 10,  In Bos, R. and Bartram, J. (Eds) Animal Waste, Water Quality and Human Health: WHO - Emerging Issues in Water and Infectious Disease series. International Water Association and WHO, London. (in press).

Wyn-Jones, A.P., Carducci, A., Cook, N., D’Agostino, M., Divizia, M.,  Fleischer, J., Gantzer, C., Gawler, A., Girones, R., Höller, C., de Roda Husman, A.,  Kay, D.,  Kozyra, I.,  López-Pila, J., Muscillo, M., São José Nascimento, M., Papageorgiou, G.,  Rutjes, S., Sellwood, J., Szewzyk, R. and Wyer, M.D. (2011) Surveillance of adenoviruses and noroviruses in European recreational waters. Water Research 45, 1025-1038. (doi:10.1016/j.watres.2010.10.015).